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Ecotaxes on Polluting Inputs and Outputs   

Ecotaxes on Polluting Inputs and Outputs

DR. raja j chelliah, DR. Paul P Appasamy, Dr. U Sankar, and Dr. Rita Pandey

Published by
Academic Foundation, New Delhi
in association with
Madras School of Economics, Chennai.
Hard Bound Book (5" x 8") :   Pages : 210
2007  Edition   :   ISBN -81-7188-584-5
Price : Rs. 595.00 ;  US $ 39.95
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ABOUT THE BOOK :

Economic instruments have become increasingly popular worldwide as s strategy to achieve environmental goals. The National Environment Policy, 2006 recommends the use of economic instruments to supplement regulation. Unlike emission taxes or tradable permits which require legal and institutional capacity, ecotaxes on polluting inputs and outputs can be easily implemented through the existing system of central taxes. For dispersed non-point source pollution, a tax on input/output is an ideal instrument for controlling pollution. This volume contains ecotax proposals for coal, automobiles, detergents, paper and pulp, pesticides, fertilisers, lead acid batteries and plastics.


ABOUT THE AUTHORS :

Raja J. Chelliah is Chairman Emeritus, Madras School of Economics, Chennai and Professor of Eminence, National Institute of Public Finance & Policy, New Delhi.

U. Sankar is Honorary Professor, Madras School of Economics, Chennai.

Paul P. Appasamy is Member Secretary, Centre of Excellence in Environmental Economics, Madras School of Economics, Chennai.

Rita Pandey is Professor, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi.


CONTENTS IN DETAIL :

List of Figures, Tables and Annexures

Foreword

Acknowledgements

About the Authors

1. Introduction

Externality

Regulatory Approach

Economic Approaches

International and Domestic Support for Economic Instruments

2. Design and Implementation of Ecotaxes

Why Ecotaxes?

Coverage and Design Issues

International Experience

Scope of the Study

3. Coal

Introduction

Production

Coal Demand Forecast

Imports and Exports

Pricing

Royalty on Coal

Environmental Problems

Inferior Coal and Beneficiated Coal

Coal Cess Based on Cost of Beneficiation

Proposed Rates of Ecocess on Coal

Estimate of Revenue from Ecocess

Clean Coal Fund

Conclusion

4. Automobiles

Introduction

Vehicular Pollution in India

Ecotax Proposals in the Interim Report

Comments on the Interim Report by SIAM and
Modifications in the Proposals

In-use Vehicles

Recommendations

5. Chlorine Use in Pulp and Paper and Viscose Rayon Industries

Introduction

Industry Structure

Cost Aspects

Central Excise Duty on Paper

Chlorine Production and Use

Environmental Impact of Chlorine

Comments by Industry

Viscose Rayon

Recommendations

6. Phosphate Based Detergents

Introduction

Detergent Industry

Use of Phosphates

Sodium Tri-Poly Phosphate (STPP)

Detergent Use in India

Regulatory Approaches

Experiences in Other Countries

Alternatives to Phosphates

Central Excise Duty

Comments by Detergent Manufacturers

Recommendations

7. Chemical Pesticides and Biopesticides

Introduction

Pesticide Production in India

Pesticide Use in India

Pesticide Resistance

Toxic Residues in Food

Occupational Exposure

Registration and Licensing of Pesticides

Pricing of Pesticides

The Biopesticide Market

Botanical Pesticides

Acceptance of Biopesticides by Farmers

Recommendations

8. Fertilisers

Introduction

Fertiliser Use in India

Fertiliser Consumption Per Hectare

Fertiliser Pricing Policy

Problems to be Considered

Nitrate Pollution

Biofertilisers

Factors Favouring and Limiting the Use of Biofertilisers

Fertiliser Taxes in Other Countries

Comments by the Fertiliser Association of India

Recommendations

9. Lead Acid Batteries

Indian Battery Industry

Indian Lead Sector

Health Effects of Lead

Why Dealers Sell Battery Scrap to Traders and not Battery Manufacturers

Salient Features of Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001

The Main Issues at Hand

Measures to Control Environmental Pollution from Batteries: International Experience

Recommendations

Revenue Implications

10. Plastics

Introduction

Background

Recycling

Plastic Wastes

Biodegradability

Bioplastics as an Alternative

Other Disposal Options

Government Initiatives

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)

Ecotaxes on Plastic Bags

Discussions with the Plastics Manufacturers Association

Recommendations

11. Summary

Coal

Automobiles

Chlorine

Detergents

Pesticides

Fertilisers

Lead Acid Batteries

Plastics

References

Index

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